Transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain are validated through a process called mining. Mining involves using powerful computers to solve complex mathematical puzzles in order to verify transactions and add them to the blockchain.

When a user wants to make a transaction on the Bitcoin network, they broadcast a message to the network that contains information about the transaction, such as the amount of Bitcoin being sent and the addresses of the sender and recipient. This message is then received by miners, who compete to be the first to validate the transaction and add it to the blockchain.

To validate a transaction, a miner must create a digital signature, known as a “hash,” that proves the transaction is valid and complies with the rules of the network. This involves using specialized software to solve a complex mathematical problem that is based on the transaction data and the current state of the blockchain. Once a miner has solved the problem, they create a new block that contains the transaction and broadcast it to the network.

Other miners on the network then verify the block and, if it is valid, add it to their copy of the blockchain. This process not only confirms the transaction, but also creates a permanent and tamper-evident record of it on the blockchain. The miner who successfully adds a block to the blockchain is rewarded with a certain amount of Bitcoin, which incentivizes people to participate in the mining process and secure the network.

Overall, the process of mining and transaction validation on the Bitcoin blockchain is designed to be decentralized, secure, and efficient, allowing users to transfer value and information without the need for a central authority.